Mesenchymal Stem Cells from fat tissue
Mesenchymal Stem Cells
Stem cells are single cells that can replicate themselves or differentiate in specialized types of cells. To be considered a stem cell, a cell is required to have the following two characteristics:
- Self-renewal: The cell divides maintaining the undifferentiated state. When it divides, there will be a new original stem cell and another daughter cell that is differentiated.
- Potency: the cell differentiates to specialized cell types
Embryonic stem cells and adult stem cells are two types of stem cells. The first is isolated by inner cell mass of blastocysts which form the embryo. The adults’ stem cells (autologous stem cells) are isolated from bone marrow, adipose tissue or blood and they are in charge of replenishing adult tissue.
The sources of Adults’ stem cells are:
- Bone marrow. A collection sample from the femur or iliac crest is required to be collected
- Adipose tissue (fat cells): fat collection by liposuction
- Blood: drawn blood from the patient is required
Many studies showed that Mesenchymal Stem Cell from fat tissue could have a role in the wound healing due to the capacity to modulate the wound repair process, but also in aesthetic treatment or other specialities.
It is intended for the management of:
- Skin repair and regeneration in various acute and chronic skin injuries
- Diabetic skin ulcers
- Radiation and thermal burns
- Body shaping
- Hair loss
The wound healing is a well-orchestrated process of migration, proliferation and deposition of extracellular matrix through different phases of inflammation. Alteration of this process delays the healing of the wound. The mesenchymal stem cells from fat tissue help the wound healing by increasing the angiogenesis, re-epithelialization, and granulation tissue.
The procedure of isolating the cells includes liposuction of fat (it should be between 10 ml and 50 ml) under local anaesthesia. Then It is processed under a “wash and enzymatic digestion” to extract the cells. The cells are processed in culture to increase the number. This process requires usually 14 up to 25 days. In the end, part of the mesenchymal stem cells are released for the treatment, part of them could be dry preserved for further treatment.