Hyaluronic acid is a natural polymer. In the human body, it is distributed around cells and in the extracellular matrix (ECM). A Fallacara and Coll conducted an interesting overview, describing history, physico-chemical, structural and hydrodynamic of hyaluronic acid. They evaluated also the different applications of the HA in medicine, pharmaceutical and cosmetic fields.
Hyaluronic acid is a natural polymer belonging to a group of heteropolysaccharides named glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). Hyaluronan is widely present in humans and animals, such as rabbits, bovines, roosters, and bacteria.
HA is involved in many key processes, including cell signaling, wound reparation, tissue regeneration, morphogenesis, matrix organization. In the human body, it is prevalently distributed around cells and in the extracellular matrix (ECM) of connective tissues. HA modulates tissue hydration, osmotic balance and the physical properties of ECM. It produces a stable extracellular space in which cells, collagen, elastin fibers, and other ECM elements are firmly maintained. Due to their unique biological and physicochemical properties, it represents interesting biomaterials for a variety of medical, food and cosmetic applications. It can be used in Ophthalmologic Surgery and Ophthalmology, Arthrology, Rhinology and Pneumology, Urology, Soft Tissue Regeneration and so on.
One of the most important uses of HA is to support the wound healing process. It promotes the re-epithelialization processes increasing the fibroblast proliferation. It helps the fibroblast migration and adhesion to the wound site. It stimulates collagen production.
In 2018 Arianna Fallacara and Coll conducted an interesting overview describing the history, physicochemical, structural and hydrodynamic of hyaluronic acid. Moreover, they evaluated the different applications in the HA in medicine, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic fields. In conclusion, due to its numerous and unique properties, hyaluronic acid displays a great number of potential applications uses in the future with different fields of application.
Arianna Fallacara, Erika Baldini, Stefano Manfredini, Silvia Vertuani Polymers (Basel). 2018 Jun 25;10(7).