Biofilm and Wound Healing: An Overview, Causes, and Treatment Methods
To cure the wound, identifying and managing “Biofilms” is of paramount significance. Biofilm in injury is a type of contamination made up of living microorganisms which are capable of forming colonies. They are primarily composed of several species of Algae, Bacteria, Fungi, Viruses, Yeasts, other microbes. In addition, they can be easily developed when two of the more successful organisms attach themselves to the surface of wounds via secreting a gummy substance. They are known to infect most bodily tissues and may lead to Chronic Infections as well as Non-Healing Wounds. As a matter of fact, approximately 60% of chronic wounds contain a Biofilm that could delay healing.
Biofilms – A Major Reason for Delay Healing:
- Biofilms are dynamic communities of bacterias which live within a protective self-secreted matrix of sugars as well as proteins.
- The presence of a Biofilm disrupts the normal healing process. And, as per the recent research, about 60% of wound types contain a Biofilm.
- If a patient has treated for the non-healing chronic wound which failed to progress, they are most likely dealing with a Biofilm.
Causes of Biofilms in Wounds:
- In the Biofilms the microorganisms are attached not only to one another but also to the wound with the help of strands made from sugary molecules. These molecules are known as EPS or Extracellular Polymeric Substances. The production of EPS supports the Biofilm to develop a complex and three-dimensional structure that too within a few hours.
- Additionally, these structures can also get detached as clumps of cells that move as well as attach to other surfaces in order to propagate further. Indeed, they are resistant to defense the mechanisms of the body. And, thus, they are considered as a major obstacle to the wound healing process.
Treatment Methods for Biofilm in Wound Healing:
- To promote faster healing, “Debridement of Wounds” should be done regularly. Based on the severity of injury, surgical instruments such as ‘Curette’ or ultrasound energy are utilized to eradicate the matrix of Biofilm.
- The “Systemic Antibiotics” are utilized to destroy the Biofilm microorganisms and prevent re-seeding of bacteria on the wound surface. Antibiotics which are particularly designed to selectively kill the robust Biofilm-based bacteria can be beneficial.
- Topical agents including Creams, Methylene Blue, and Cadexomer iodine also help eradicate the Biofilm.