Skin tissue engineering – stem cell and wound healing
The approach of regenerative medicine has emerged as an alternative to provide additional therapeutic options to potentially improve wound healing. Dr Azar Nourian Dehkordi and Coll. made an interesting review about the use of stem-cell-based therapeutic strategies in wound care.
The healing process is the result of the coordination of three overlapping but distinct phases. This includes inflammation, proliferation and remodelling. The wound-healing process is highly regulated by the secretion of various growth factors, cytokines, and chemokines. Wound care treatment involves selecting appropriate dressings to maintain a good wound-healing environment, control infection control, debride the tissue, and address the underlying causes such as ischemia and diabetes. The approach of regenerative medicine has emerged as an alternative to provide additional therapeutic options to potentially improve wound healing and restore normal skin architecture. Dermal substitutes play a crucial role in reducing scar formation in skin reconstruction, inhibiting excessive proliferation and improving softness and contracture as well as improving mechanical wear resistance.
Stem cell-based therapy has become a promising new approach in the field of regenerative medicine. The considerable interest in the biology of stem cells is concerned with their capacity for self-renew and differentiate multiple cell types and is crucial for physiologic tissue renewal and regeneration after injury
Stem cells are characterized by their capacity for self-renewal, asymmetric replication, and differentiation to other cells building different tissues and organs. Their therapeutic potential is largely due to their capability to secrete pro-regenerative cytokines, causing them to be an attractive choice for the treatment of chronic wounds. The main sources of cells are embryonic stem cells (ESCs), induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS), and adult stem cells.
- Embryonic stem cells are pluripotent stem cells derived from the inner cell mass of the preimplantation blastocyst (35-day-old embryo) and obtained from mice, humans, and nonhuman primates.
- Pluripotent stem cells are the newest class of pluripotent stem cells. It can differentiate between all types of cells from the skin to nerve and muscle.
- Adult stem cells contain significant proliferative capacity, long-term self-renewal potential, and having the ability to differentiate into other lineages. They are found in various tissues, including the skin, heart, liver, brain, and bone marrow. Among the different types of adult stem cell, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and adipose-derived stromal cells (ASCs) have gained considerable attention as suitable candidate to enhance tissue regeneration. The mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are harvested from various sites (bone marrow, adipose tissue, amniotic fluid, and dermis) are considered a source for therapeutic approaches owing to their multilineage differentiation, high frequency, the facility of isolation and characterization, and the ability of MSCs to migrate to injury sites in the body. Adipose-derived stem cells can promote wound healing and trigger neovascularization through their ability to differentiate endothelial cells and release VEGFThe results.
Dr Azar Nourian Dehkordi and Coll. made an interesting review about the use of stem-cell-based therapeutic strategies in wound care. The clinical data demonstrated that the use of Stem cells could promote the healing process in all wound repair phases. The aim of skin regeneration is to achieve structural and functional reconstruction, reduce scar formation, and improve the quality of wound healing. Stem cell-based therapy has offered a novel and powerful strategy in burns and wound management. Stem cells have been demonstrated to have considerable potential in skin tissue regeneration.